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This is due to the perishable nature of the material, such as textile, leather, and wood, which was used in making the artifacts, as well as because of the fact that often the games were simply drawn on the ground. The central row of eight fields is accompanied on either side by four fields on one end of the board, making a rectangle of 4 x 3 fields, and by two fields on the other end of the board, making a rectangle of 2 x 3 fields (see FIGURE 1 and FIGURE 2). The complete scorpion-board from Jiroft confirms the earlier identification of a fragment from the site of Tepe Yahya (Yaḥyā) in Kermān province in southeastern Iran as belonging to a similar board (Potts , p. As far as the rules of the game of 20 squares are concerned, the counters and random generators (stick dice and pyramidal dice), associated with the game boards at Ur, indicate that the game was designed as a race between two players. Ten boards are known to date from different regions in Iran: Tepe Siālk near Kāšān in west central Iran (Ghirshman, 1939, p. At Gohar Tepe in Māzandarān, a woman was buried during the 1st millennium BCE with a significant amount of bone gaming pieces (Anonymous, p. A terracotta 58-hole game board was unearthed in an Iron Age grave at Tepe Siālk, and faience pendants imitating this game have been found in the same cemetery (Ghirshman, 1939, p. XXVII, 9 and 10), which attests to the miniaturization of games adopted as symbols. 9-12 and 13, bronze), as well as from Denḵā Tepe in Azerbaijan (Muscarella, 1974, p. They become more numerous from the second half of the 2nd millennium BCE onwards, being frequently found in children’s graves. The knucklebones have small holes to indicate the values of the four sides: the smaller faces resemble a human ear and a bird’s head (called by the Romans or “dog” by Greeks and Romans) and have 4 and 3 holes respectively (Schädler, 1996; Idem, 2007, p. Ethnography can help reconstruct some games, since many of them are still played nowadays (Watson, pp. Despite their popularity, the names and the rules of ancient games remain unknown. The form of the wooden board and the order of the individual spaces or fields follow the earlier examples from the royal cemetery at Ur (Woolley, 1934, pp. On the board found at Šahr-e Suḵta the fields are fashioned by the coils of a snake, carved in relief (FIGURE 1). It is generally assumed that the four squares on each side of the board served as entry fields, where the two players had to enter their counters. They have the shape of a brick with 3 x 12 perforated fields made as quadrangles (FIGURE 4). A slab from Susa bears the pattern of 3 x 10 squares and has three cavities on the side, which were probably meant for counters (Mecquenem, 1943, p. Sophie Erdös suggested that the anthropomorphic shape of the 58-hole boards from Susa refers to a cult of rebirth (Erdös, 1986, p. The player had to move the peg along the board/body to ensure the revival. Several examples including two bone knucklebones with one hole in the broad sides and one piece made of bronze and dating to the 12th century BCE come from Susa (Mecquenem, 1943, p. Children also used knucklebones for a number of games of skill that are played until now. 11), whereas the large faces, that is the rounded one (called “belly” by Aristotle) and the one with the deepening in the middle (called “back” by Aristotle), count 2 or 0 and 1 point respectively, thus clearly attributing the higher scores to the faces the knucklebone comes to lie on less frequently. e) Cubic dice made of bone, stone, or clay have been in use since the 3rd millennium BCE with different systems of distributing the points. Science, Philosophy and Religion, A Symposium, published by the Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life, Inc., New York (1941); later published in Out of My Later Years (1950) Full text online A religious person is devout in the sense that he has no doubt of the significance and loftiness of those superpersonal objects and goals which neither require nor are capable of rational foundation.They exist with the same necessity and matter-of-factness as he himself.Albert Einstein, Telegram () sent to prominent Americans. In Robert Andrews Famous Lines: a Columbia Dictionary of Familiar Quotations (1997), 340.

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Behind each cause is still another cause; the end or the beginning of all causes has yet to be found.Another person present at the 1954 conversation offered his own slightly different transcription of Einstein's comments, which was published in the article "Death of a Genius" from the 2 May, 1955 issue of Life Magazine. We live now in a scientific age and in a psychological age. You know what the Herdenmenschen (men of herd mentality) can do when they are organized and have a leader, especially if he is a spokesmen for the Church."Einstein and the Poet" is viewable on Google Books here. But remember, that for God a thousand years is a day. I do not say that the unspeakable crimes of the Church for 2000 years had always the blessings of the Vatican, but it vaccinated its believers with the idea: We have the true God, and the Jews have crucified Him. Too often in history, men have followed the cry of battle rather than the cry of truth." When Hermanns asked him "Isn't it only human to move along the line of least resistance? It is indeed human, as proved by Cardinal Pacelli, who was behind the Concordat with Hitler.The concentration camps make the actions of Ghengis Khan look like child's play. 65: "I don't like to implant in youth the Church's doctrine of a personal God, because that Church has behaved so inhumanely in the past 2000 years. Consider the hate the Church manifested against the Jews and then against the Muslims, the Crusades with their crimes, the burning stakes of the Inquisition, the tacit consent of Hitler's actions while the Jews and the Poles dug their own graves and were slaughtered. The truly religious man has no fear of life and no fear of death—and certainly no blind faith; his faith must be in his conscience. It would have been fine if the spirit of religion had guided the Church; instead, the Church determined the spirit of religion. But what makes me shudder is that the Church is silent. Churchmen through the ages have fought political and institutional corruption very little, so long as their own sanctity and church property were preserved."Analysis • Analytic–synthetic distinction • A priori and a posteriori • Causality • Commensurability • Consilience • Construct • Creative synthesis • Demarcation problem • Empirical evidence • Explanatory power • Fact • Falsifiability • Feminist method • Ignoramus et ignorabimus • Inductive reasoning • Intertheoretic reduction • Inquiry • Nature • Objectivity • Observation • Paradigm • Problem of induction • Scientific law • Scientific method • Scientific revolution • Scientific theory • Testability • Theory choice • Theory-ladenness • Underdetermination • Unity of science Coherentism • Confirmation holism • Constructive empiricism • Constructive realism • Constructivist epistemology • Contextualism • Conventionalism • Deductive-nomological model • Hypothetico-deductive model • Inductionism • Epistemological anarchism • Evolutionism • Fallibilism • Foundationalism • Instrumentalism • Pragmatism • Model-dependent realism • Naturalism • Physicalism • Positivism/reductionism/determinism • Rationalism/empiricism • Received view/semantic view of theories • Scientific realism/anti-realism • Scientific essentialism • Scientific formalism • Scientific skepticism • Scientism • Structuralism • Uniformitarianism • Vitalism Alchemy • Criticism of science • Epistemology • Faith and rationality • History and philosophy of science • History of science • History of evolutionary thought • Logic • Metaphysics • Pseudoscience • Relationship between religion and science • Rhetoric of science • Sociology of scientific knowledge • Sociology of scientific ignorance Immanuel Kant • Friedrich Schelling • William Whewell • Auguste Comte • John Stuart Mill • Herbert Spencer • Wilhelm Wundt • Charles Sanders Peirce • Wilhelm Windelband • Henri Poincaré • Pierre Duhem • Rudolf Steiner • Karl Pearson Alfred North Whitehead • Bertrand Russell • Albert Einstein • Otto Neurath • C. Broad • Michael Polanyi • Hans Reichenbach • Rudolf Carnap • Karl Popper • Carl Gustav Hempel • W.

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